In detail

Below are the five principles that the five letters S, O, L, I and D stand for:

S – SRP - Single responsibility principle

  • a class should have only a single responsibility (i.e. only one potential change in the software's specification should be able to affect the specification of the class)
  • this keeps classes small and reduces coupling

O – OCP - Open/closed principle

  • “software entities … should be open for extension, but closed for modification.”
  • The “class” here is really defined as its interface.
  • The interface does not change – it is closed for modification
  • But you can add as many implementations of that interface as you like – and each one can have a different behaviour
  • For instance, ILogger can be implemented by PrintLogger and ConsoleLogger and FileLogger – and you can add as many more as you like.
  • This also means that you never modify the original code, ie the code in PrinterLogger and ConsoleLogger (apart from if you’re fixing bugs) – you just add new implementations instead.

L – LSP - Liskov substitution principle

  • “objects in a program should be replaceable with instances of their subtypes without altering the correctness of that program.” See also design by contract.
  • Code that uses a base class must be able to substitute a subclass without knowing it
  • The specific functionality of the subclass may be different but must conform to the expected behaviour of the base class.
  • EXAMPLE:
    • So, I can call FemaleMammal.GiveBirth and I can substitute a cow into that - Cow.GiveBirth without breaking anything
    • No matter which version I choose, I should be confident that I will end up with a baby animal. Even though the specifics might be slightly different.
  • These are the principles which must be adhered to:
    • Contravariance with parameters
      • There should be contravariance between parameters of the base class's methods and the matching parameters in subclasses. This means that the parameters in subclasses must either be the same types as those in the base class or must be less restrictive.
      • Parameters in subclasses are either the same or have more / add extra functionality
      • EXAMPLE:
        • FemaleMammal.GiveBirth(Mammal mothersBestFriend)
        • Cow.GiveBirth(Animal mothersBestFriend)
      • See Covariance and Contravariance
    • Covariance with return values
      • There must be covariance between method return values in the base class and its subclasses. This specifies that the subclass' return types must be the same as, or more restrictive than, the base class' return types.
      • Return values in subclasses are either the same or have less functionality
      • EXAMPLE:
        • Mammal baby = FemaleMammal.GiveBirth();
        • Bovine baby = Cow.GiveBirth();
      • See Covariance and Contravariance
    • Preconditions
      • The preconditions of a base class must not be strengthened by a subclass
      • A precondition of a class is a rule that must be in place before an action can be taken.
      • EXAMPLE:
        • FemaleMammal must not be a virgin and must never have had a Caesarian before giving birth
        • Cow must not be a virgin before giving birth
    • Postconditions
      • Postconditions cannot be weakened in subclasses.
      • Postconditions describe the state of objects after a process is completed.
      • EXAMPLE:
        • After female mammal gives birth, it must have an associated baby that is a mammal
        • After cow gives birth, it must have an associated baby that is a bovine (this is fine)
        • After cow gives birth, it must have an associated baby that is any kind of animal (this would not be fine)
    • Invariants
      • The invariants of a base class must not be changed by a subclass.
      • An invariant describes a condition of a process that is true before the process begins and remains true afterwards.
      • EXAMPLE:
        • FemaleMammal is female both before and after birth
        • Cow is female both before and after birth
    • History
      • New or modified members should not modify the state of an object in a manner that would not be permitted by the base class
      • EXAMPLE:
        • FemaleMammal gains a newly populated Baby property and the baby has a head
        • Cow gains a newly populated Baby property (this is fine)
        • Cow gains a newly populated CowUdders property (this is not fine)
    • Exceptions
      • A subclass should not throw exceptions that are not thrown by the base class unless they are subtypes of exceptions that may be thrown by the base class
      • EXAMPLE:
        • FemaleMammal.GiveBirth throws a BreachedBaby exception
        • Cow.GiveBirth throws a BreachedBabyCow exception (this is fine)
        • Cow.GiveBirth throws a NotEnoughGrass exception (this is not fine)
  • For instance, if you want a read-only file type, it should not inherit from File – and File should not have a Save method. Rather, the base File type has a Load method, and it has a subclass – WriteableFile – which has a Save method. Thus the base class cannot be saved. (otherwise you would have ReadOnlyFile which was not able to implement the Save method on its parent, and also left the object in a different state after calling Save than what you would expect – particularly if its Save method threw an exception which was not thrown by the base class)

I - ISP - Interface Segregation Principle

  • “many client-specific interfaces are better than one general-purpose interface.”
  • So, if you have an interface that contains lots of methods which are not used by all clients… replace it with several smaller client-focused interfaces. You can still have one class which implements several of these interfaces.

D – DIP - Dependency Inversion Principle

  • One should “Depend upon Abstractions. Do not depend upon concretions.”
  • Dependency injection is one method of following this principle.
  • Loose coupling
  • See Inversion of Control in this wiki